Dear Study Participant,
Thanks to your commitment to this three-year longitudinal study we can report two major findings and some preliminary results:

1. The dual syndrome hypothesis is a well-accepted and influential theory about cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease. This theory proposes two distinct cognitive syndromes. One of those syndromes is more predictive of cognitive decline and dementia than the other. With the help of the MRI scans that you participated in, we were able to identify for the first time changes in distinct regional brain networks associated with each of the two syndromes. 

Dr. Stefan Lang, trainee in Dr. Oury Monchi’s lab was awarded the Junior Award of the Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Society in 2018 for these findings. The study is published in the academic journal Movement Disorders.

2. In collaboration with Dr. Zahinoor Ismail we were able to show for the first time, that a short questionnaire (The Mild Behavioral Impairment-Check List) is linked to cognitive deficits and brain structural changes in Parkinson’s disease. 

This two-page questionnaire with questions about subtle changes in mood or personality designed for people older than 50 is one of the two questionnaires that a relative or close friend had to fill out about you.
If this result can be confirmed longitudinally, it could change clinical practice, as it would allow for better identification of neuropsychiatric symptoms and the early and easy detection of incipient cognitive decline. 
(This article is in press in the Academic Journal Neurology and has been selected for a highlight.)
3. Preliminary results indicate that certain changes in the alpha-synuclein gene are associated with specific cognitive deficits, particularly attention and memory, as well as changes in brain activity. 
These results have been presented at international conferences.
Thank you very much for your contribution to our Parkinson’s disease research.
We could not do it without you!


Select Publications

66-Lang S*, Hanganu A*, Kibreab M*, Auclair-Ouellet N*, Alrazi T*, Ramezani M*, Hammer T, CHeetham J*, Kathol I*, Sarna J*, Monchi O. (2019). Network basis of the dysexecutive and posterior cortical cognitive profiles in Parkinson’s Disease. Movement Disorders. In Press.

65-Yoon EJ*, Ismail Z, Hanganu A*, Kibreab M*, Hammer T*, Cheetham J*, Kathol I*, Sarna J, Martino D, Furtado S, Monchi O. Mild Behavioral Impairment is linked to worse cognition and brain atrophy in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology. Accepted.

64-Rahayel S, Gaubert M, Postuma RB, Montplaisir J, MD, Carrier J, Monchi O, Rémillard-Pelchat D, Bourgouin PA, Panisset M, Chouinard S, Joubert S, Gagnon JF. (2019). Brain Atrophy in Parkinson's Disease with Polysomnography-Confirmed REM Sleep Behavior Disorder. Sleep E-pub ahead of press.

63-Stilling JM*, Monchi O, Amoozegar F, Debert CT. (2019). Transcranial Magnetic and Direct Current Stimulation (TMS/tDCS) for the Treatment of Headache: A Systematic Review. Headache. 59(3):339-357. 

62-Bourgouin PA, Rahayel S, Gaubert M, Postuma RB, Montplaisir J, Carrier J, Monchi O, Pelletier A, Gagnon JF. (2019). Gray matter substrates of depressive and anxiety symptoms in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder Parkinsonism and Related Disorders. E-pub ahead of print.

61-Smart K, Benkelfat C, Monchi O. (2019). Why is aging a risk factor for cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease? - A resting state fMRI study - Frontiers in Neurology. In Press.

60-Habak C*, Seghier ML, Brûlé J, Fahim MA and Monchi O. (2019). Age Affects How Task Difficulty and Complexity Modulate Perceptual Decision-Making. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. In Press.

59-Goubault E, Nguyen HP, Bogard S, Blanchet PJ, Bezard E, Vincent C, Sarna J, Monchi O, Duval C. (2019). Remnants of Cardinal Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease, Not Dyskinesia, Are Problematic for Dyskinetic Patients Performing Activities of Daily Living. Frontiers Neurology. In Press

58-Mitchell T, Potvin-Desrochers A, Lafontaine AL, Monchi O,Thiel A, Paquette, C. (2018). Cerebral metabolic changes related to freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease. The Journal of Nuclear Medicine. E-pub ahead of print: doi: 10.2967/jnumed.118.218248.

57-Hanganu A*, Houde JC, Fonov V, Degroot C*, Mejia-Constain B*, Lafontaine AL, Soland V, Chouinard S, Collins DL, Descoteaux, M, Monchi, O. (2018). White matter degeneration profile in the cognitive corticosubcortical tracts in Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders. 33(7): 1139-1150.

56-Rudakou, U, Amar Bencheikh, BO, Ruskey, J; Krohn, L, Laurent SB, Spiegelman, Liong, DC Fahn, S, Waters, C, Monchi, O, Fon, EA, Dauvilliers, Y, Alcalay, RN, Dupre, N, Gan-OR, Z. (2018). Common and rare GCH1 variants are associated with Parkinson disease. Neurobiology of Aging. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro: e231-e236.

55-Methqal I, Marsolais Y, Wilson MA, Monchi O, Joanette Y. (2018). More expertise for a better perspective: Task and strategy-driven adaptive neurofunctional reorganization for word production in high-performing older adults. Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn. 16: 1-32.

54-Rahayel S, Postuma RB, Montplaisir J, Marchand DG, Escudier F, Gaubert M, Bourgouin PA, Carrier J, Monchi O, Joubert S, Blanc F, and Gagnon JF. (2018). Cortical and subcortical gray matter bases Of cognitive deficits in rem sleep behavior disorder. Neurology. 90(20): e1759-e1770.

53-Hanganu A*, Monchi, O. (2018). Interaction Between Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Cognitive Performance in Parkinson's Disease: What Do Clinical and Neuroimaging Studies Tell Us?. Curr NeurolNeurosci Rep. 18(91): 1-9.

52-Hanganu A*, Bruneau MA, Degroot C*, Bedetti C*, Mejia-Constain M*, Lafontaine AL, Chouinard S, Monchi O. (2017). Depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease correlate with cortical atrophy over time. Brain and Cognition. 111: 127-133.

51-Lajoie I, Nugent S, Debacker C, Dyson K, Tancredi FB, Badhwar A, Belleville S, Deschaintre Y, Bellec P, Doyon J, Bocti C, Gauthier S, Arnold D, Kergoat MJ, Chertkow H, Monchi O, Hoge RD. (2017). Application of calibrated fMRI in Alzheimer's disease. Neuroimage Clinical. 15: 348-358.

50-Rahayel S, Postuma RB, Montplaisir J, Bedetti C, Brambati S, Carrier J, Monchi O, Bourgouin PA, Gaubert M, Gagnon JF. (2017). Abnormal Gray Matter Shape,Thickness, and Volume in the Motor Cortico-Subcortical Loop in Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder: Association with Clinical and Motor Features. Cerebral Cortex. 7: 1-14.

49-Auclair-Ouellet N*, Lieberman P, Monchi O.(2017). Contribution of language studies to the understanding of cognitive impairment and its progression over time in Parkinson's disease. Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews. 3(80): 657-672.

48-Methqal I, Pinsard B, Amiri M, Wilson MA, Monchi O, Provost JS*, Joanette Y. (2017). Age-Related Brain Activation Changes during Rule Repetition in Word-Matching. Frontiers Human Neurosciences. 201:10.3389/fnhum.2017.0.

47-Methqal I, Provost JS*, Wilson MA, Monchi O, Amiri M, Pinsard B, Ansado J, Joanette Y. (2017). Age-Related Shift in Neuro-Activation during a Word-Matching Task. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience doi:10.3389/fnagi.2017.00265. ecollection 2017: 265.

46-Lehericy S, Vaillancourt DE, Seppi K, Monchi O, Rektorova I, Antonini A, McKeown MJ, Masellis M, Berg D, Rowe JB, Lewis SJG, Williams-Gray CH, Tessitore A, Siebner HR, International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society (IPMDS)-Neuroimaging Study Group. (2017). The role of high-field magnetic resonance imaging in parkinsonian disorders: Pushing the boundaries forward. Movement Disorders. 32(4):510-515. 

45-Tam A, Dansereau C, Badhwar A, Orban P, Belleville S, Chertkow H, Dagher A, Hanganu A, Monchi O, Rosa-Neto P, Shmuel A, Breitner J, Bellec P. (2016). A dataset of multi-resolution functional brain parcellations in an elderly population with no or mild cognitive impairment. Data Brief. 9: 1122-1129.

44-Nagano-Saito A, Al-Azzawi MS, Hanganu A, Degroot C, Mejia-Constain B, Bedetti C, Lafontaine AL, Soland V, Chouinard S, Monchi O. Patterns of longitudinal neural activity linked to different cognitive profiles in Parkinson’s disease. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 8: 275.

43-Hanganu A*, Monchi O.(2016). Structural Neuroimaging Markers of Cognitive Decline in Parkinson's Disease. Parkinson's disease. 2016(3217960): doi: 10.1155/2016/3. 

42-Monchi, O., Hanganu, A*., Bellec, P. (2016). Markers of cognitive decline in PD: The case for heterogeneity. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders. 24: 8-14.

41-Martins, R*, Joanette, Y, Monchi, O.(2015). The implications of age-related neurofunctional compensatory mechanisms in executive function and language processing including the new Temporal Hypothesis for Compensation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00221. 9: 221. 

40-Provost JS*, Monchi O.(2015). Exploration of the dynamics between brain regions associated with the default-mode network and fronto striatal pathway with regards to task familiarity. European Journal of Neuroscience. 41(6): 835-844.

39-Hanganu A*, Provost JS*, Monchi O.(2015). Neuroimaging studies of striatum in cognition part II: Parkinson's disease. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience doi: Neuroscience10.3389/fnsys.2015.00139(138): 140.

38-Tam A, Dansereau C, Badhwar AP, Orban P, Belleville S, Chertkow H, Dagher A, Hanganu A*, Monchi O, Rosa-Neto P, Shmuel A, Wang S, Breitner J, Bellec P. (2015). Common Effects of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment on Resting-State Connectivity Across Four Independent Studies. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2015.00242. 7(24): 242.

37-Provost JS*, Hanganu A*, Monchi O. (2015). Neuroimaging studies of the striatum in cognition Part I: healthy individuals. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience doi:10.3389/fnsys.2015.00140. 9(8): 140.

36-Hanganu A*, Degroot C*, Monchi O, Bedetti C*, Mejia-Constain B*, Lafontaine AL, Chouinard S, Bruneau MA. (2014). Influence of depressive symptoms on dopaminergic treatment of Parkinson's disease. Frontiers in Neurology doi: 10.3389/fneur.2014.00188. 5:18.

35-Habak C, Noreau A, Nagano-Saito A, Mejía-Constaín B, Degroot C, Strafella AP, Chouinard S, Lafontaine AL, Rouleau GA, Monchi O. Dopamine transporter SLC6A3 genotype affects cortico-striatal activity of set-shifts in Parkinson’s disease. Brain. 2014 Nov;137(Pt 11):3025-35. doi: 10.1093/brain/awu251. Epub 2014 Sep 10. PubMed PMID: 25212851; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4208466.

34-Monchi O, Hanganu A. Reply: Is nucleus accumbens atrophy correlated with cognitive symptoms of Parkinson’s disease? Brain. 2014 Jul 16. pii: awu200. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25034896.

33-MacDonald AA, Seergobin KN, Tamjeedi R, Owen AM, Provost JS, Monchi O. , Ganjavi H, MacDonald PA. Examining dorsal striatum in cognitive effort using Parkinson’s disease and fMRI. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2014 Jun;1(6):390-400. doi: 10.1002/acn3.62. Epub 2014 May 16. PubMed PMID: 25356409; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4184667.

32-Hanganu A, Bedetti C, Degroot C, Mejia-Constain B, Lafontaine AL, Soland V, Chouinard S, Bruneau MA, Mellah S, Belleville S, Monchi O. Mild cognitive impairment is linked with faster rate of cortical thinning in patients with Parkinson’s disease longitudinally. Brain. 2014 Apr;137(Pt 4):1120-9. doi: 10.1093/brain/awu036. Epub 2014 Mar 10. PubMed PMID: 24613932.

31-Rahayel S, Montplaisir J, Monchi O, Bedetti C, Postuma RB, Brambati S, Carrier J, Joubert S, Latreille V, Jubault T, Gagnon JF. Patterns of cortical thinning in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Mov Disord. 2014 Feb 22. doi: 10.1002/mds.25820. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24676967.

30-Christopher L, Marras C, Duff-Canning S, Koshimori Y, Chen R, Boileau I, Segura B, Monchi O, Lang AE, Rusjan P, Houle S, Strafella AP. Combined insular and striatal dopamine dysfunction are associated with executive deficits in Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment. Brain. 2014 Feb;137(Pt 2):565-75. doi: 10.1093/brain/awt337. Epub 2013 Dec 12. PubMed PMID: 24334314.

29-Hanganu A, Degroot C, Monchi O, Bedetti C, Mejia-Constain B, Lafontaine AL, Chouinard S, Bruneau MA. Influence of depressive symptoms on dopaminergic treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Front Neurol. 2014 Sep 25;5:188. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2014.00188. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 25309508; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4174860.

28-Nagano-Saito A, Martinu K, Monchi O. Function of basal ganglia in bridging cognitive and motor modules to perform an action. Front Neurosci. 2014 Jul 8;8:187. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2014.00187. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 25071432; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4086202.

27-Nagano-Saito A, Habak C, Mejía-Constaín B, Degroot C, Monetta L, Jubault T, Bedetti C, Lafontaine AL, Chouinard S, Soland V, Ptito A, Strafella AP, Monchi O. Effect of mild cognitive impairment on the patterns of neural activity in early Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2014 Jan;35(1):223-31. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2013.06.025. Epub 2013 Aug 7. PubMed PMID: 23932879.

26-Poulin-Lord MP, Barbeau EB, Soulières I, Monchi O, Doyon J, Benali H, Mottron L. Increased topographical variability of task-related activation in perceptive and motor associative regions in adult autistics. Neuroimage Clin. 2014 Feb 25;4:444-53. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2014.02.008. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 25101235; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4116759.

25-Martinu K, Nagano-Saito A, Fogel S, Monchi O. Asymmetrical Effect of Levodopa on the Neural Activity of Motor Regions in PD. PLoS One. 2014 Nov 4;9(11):e111600. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111600. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 25369523; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4219727.

24-Lungu O, Monchi O, Albouy G, Jubault T, Ballarin E, Burnod Y, Doyon J. Striatal and hippocampal involvement in motor sequence chunking depends on the learning strategy. PLoS One. 2014 Aug 22;9(8):e103885. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103885. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 25148078; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4141721.

23-Martins R, Simard F, Monchi O. Differences between patterns of brain activity associated with semantics and those linked with phonological processing diminish with age. PLoS One. 2014 Jun 27;9(6):e99710. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099710. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 24972020; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4074044.

22-Hanganu A, Bedetti C, Jubault T, Gagnon JF, Mejia-Constain B, Degroot C, Lafontaine AL, Chouinard S, Monchi O. Mild cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease is associated with increased cortical degeneration. Mov Disord. 2013 Sep;28(10):1360-9. doi: 10.1002/mds.25541. Epub 2013 Jun 25. PubMed PMID: 23801590.

21-Ko JH, Antonelli F, Monchi O, Ray N, Rusjan P, Houle S, Lang AE, Christopher L, Strafella AP. Prefrontal dopaminergic receptor abnormalities and executive functions in Parkinson’s disease. Hum Brain Mapp. 2013 Jul;34(7):1591-604. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22006. Epub 2012 Feb 14. PubMed PMID: 22331665; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3542387 

20-Ansado J, Collins L, Joubert S, Fonov V, Monchi O, Brambati SM, Tomaiuolo F, Petrides M, Faure S, Joanette Y. Interhemispheric coupling improves the brain’s ability to perform low cognitive demand tasks in Alzheimer’s disease and high cognitive demand tasks in normal aging. Neuropsychology. 2013 Jul;27(4):464-80. doi: 10.1037/a0032854. PubMed PMID: 23876119.

19-Martinu K, Monchi O. Cortico-basal ganglia and cortico-cerebellar circuits in Parkinson’s disease: pathophysiology or compensation? Behav Neurosci. 2013 Apr;127(2):222-36. doi: 10.1037/a0031226. Epub 2012 Dec 17. Review. PubMed PMID: 23244290.

18-Ansado J, Monchi O, Ennabil N, Deslauriers J, Jubault T, Faure S, Joanette Y. Coping with task demand in aging using neural compensation and neural reserve triggers primarily intra-hemispheric-based neurofunctional reorganization. Neurosci Res. 2013 Apr;75(4):295-304. doi: 10.1016/j.neures.2013.01.012. Epub 2013 Feb 27. PubMed PMID: 23453977.

17-MacDonald AA, Monchi O, Seergobin KN, Ganjavi H, Tamjeedi R, MacDonald PA. Parkinson’s disease duration determines effect of dopaminergic therapy on ventral striatum function. Mov Disord. 2013 Feb;28(2):153-60. doi: 10.1002/mds.25152. Epub 2012 Nov 19. PubMed PMID: 23165957.

16-MacDonald AA, Seergobin KN, Owen AM, Tamjeedi R, Monchi O, Ganjavi H, MacDonald PA. Differential effects of Parkinson’s disease and dopamine replacement on memory encoding and retrieval. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 26;8(9):e74044. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074044. eCollection 2013. PubMed PMID: 24086309; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3784427.

15-Provost JS, Petrides M, Simard F, Monchi O. Investigating the long-lasting residual effect of a set shift on frontostriatal activity. Cereb Cortex. 2012 Dec;22(12):2811-9. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhr358. Epub 2011 Dec 20. PubMed PMID: 22190431.

14-Villeneuve S, Pepin V, Rahayel S, Bertrand JA, de Lorimier M, Rizk A, Desjardins C, Parenteau S, Beaucage F, Joncas S, Monchi O, Gagnon JF. Mild cognitive impairment in moderate to severe COPD: a preliminary study. Chest. 2012 Dec;142(6):1516-23. doi: 10.1378/chest.11-3035. PubMed PMID: 23364388.

13-Bertrand JA, Bedetti C, Postuma RB, Monchi O, Génier Marchand D, Jubault T, Gagnon JF. Color discrimination deficits in Parkinson’s disease are related to cognitive impairment and white-matter alterations. Mov Disord. 2012 Dec;27(14):1781-8. doi: 10.1002/mds.25272. Epub 2012 Nov 12. PubMed PMID: 23147270.

12-Montembeault M, Joubert S, Doyon J, Carrier J, Gagnon JF, Monchi O, Lungu O, Belleville S, Brambati SM. The impact of aging on gray matter structural covariance networks. Neuroimage. 2012 Nov 1;63(2):754-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.06.052. Epub 2012 Jul 6. PubMed PMID: 22776455.

11-Monchi O, Stoessl AJ. Imaging neural correlates of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease. Lancet Neurol. 2012 Aug;11(8):653-5. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70162-X. PubMed PMID: 22814534.

10-Martins R, Simard F, Provost JS, Monchi O. Changes in regional and temporal patterns of activity associated with aging during the performance of a lexical set-shifting task. Cereb Cortex. 2012 Jun;22(6):1395-406. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhr222. Epub 2011 Aug 24. PubMed PMID: 21868390.

09-Ansado J, Monchi O, Ennabil N, Faure S, Joanette Y. Load-dependent posterior-anterior shift in aging in complex visual selective attention situations. Brain Res. 2012 May 15;1454:14-22. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2012.02.061. Epub 2012 Mar 4. PubMed PMID: 22483790.

08-Monchi O, Degroot C, Mejia-Constain B, Bruneau MA. Neuroimaging studies of different cognitive profiles in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2012 Jan;18 Suppl 1:S77-9. doi: 10.1016/S1353-8020(11)70025-6. Review. PubMed PMID: 22166462.

07-Tremblay C, Monchi O, Hudon C, Macoir J, Monetta L. Are verbal fluency and nonliteral language comprehension deficits related to depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease? Parkinsons Dis. 2012;2012:308501. doi: 10.1155/2012/308501. Epub 2012 Feb 12. PubMed PMID: 22496988; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3306925. 

06-MacDonald PA, MacDonald AA, Seergobin KN, Tamjeedi R, Ganjavi H, Provost JS, Monchi O. The effect of dopamine therapy on ventral and dorsal striatum-mediated cognition in Parkinson’s disease: support from functional MRI. Brain. 2011 May;134(Pt 5):1447-63. doi: 10.1093/brain/awr075. PubMed PMID: 21596772. 

05-Simard F, Joanette Y, Petrides M, Jubault T, Madjar C, Monchi O. Fronto-striatal contribution to lexical set-shifting. Cereb Cortex. 2011 May;21(5):1084-93. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhq182. Epub 2010 Sep 23. PubMed PMID: 20864602.

04-Jubault T, Gagnon JF, Karama S, Ptito A, Lafontaine AL, Evans AC, Monchi O. Patterns of cortical thickness and surface area in early Parkinson’s disease. Neuroimage. 2011 Mar 15;55(2):462-7. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.12.043. Epub 2010 Dec 22. PubMed PMID: 21184830. 

03-Macdonald PA, Monchi O. Differential effects of dopaminergic therapies on dorsal and ventral striatum in Parkinson’s disease: implications for cognitive function. Parkinsons Dis. 2011 Mar 6;2011:572743. doi: 10.4061/2011/572743. PubMed PMID: 21437185; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3062097.

02-Provost JS, Petrides M, Monchi O. Dissociating the role of the caudate nucleus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the monitoring of events within human working memory. Eur J Neurosci. 2010 Sep;32(5):873-80. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2010.07333.x. Epub 2010 Aug 16. PubMed PMID: 20722715.

01-Monchi O, Martinu K, Strafella AP. The contribution of neuroimaging for the study of cognitive deficits in Parkinson’s disease. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2010 Apr;41(2):76-81. PubMed PMID: 20521489.